A Rare Case of Atypical Placental Site Nodule With an Emerging Intermediate Trophoblastic Tumor.

Dholakia J, Chen W, O'Malley DM, Ronnett BM
Int J Gynecol Pathol in press 03/01/2019

Abstract

Placental site nodule (PSN) is a benign lesion composed of chorionic-type intermediate trophoblastic cells and is typically an incidental finding in uterine or endocervical curettage specimens. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) and placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) are intermediate trophoblastic neoplasms of chorionic and implantation site types, respectively. ETT is speculated to be the neoplastic counterpart of PSN. The term atypical placental site nodule (APSN) has been proposed for PSN-type lesions displaying one or more concerning features, including larger size/more abundant lesional tissue, more extensive plaque-like growth, increased cellularity with more cohesive nests and cords of cells, a greater extent/distribution of necrosis, increased atypia, mitotic activity, and/or a Ki-67 proliferation index greater than usually encountered in the typical PSN. It has been proposed that APSN is an intermediary lesion between PSN and intermediate trophoblastic tumors, more commonly ETT but also PSTT. We report a case of a 39-yr-old woman who developed abnormal uterine bleeding 44 mo after her last recognized pregnancy. An endometrial curettage specimen demonstrated an APSN with some features concerning for an intermediate trophoblastic tumor. A hysterectomy specimen demonstrated residual APSN with foci consistent with emerging PSTT and ETT. This case illustrates the earliest form of PSTT and ETT arising in association with an APSN and supports interpretation of APSN as an intermediary lesion between typical PSN and intermediate trophoblastic tumors.

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