Aprepitant for the control of delayed nausea and vomiting associated with the use of high-dose melphalan for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplants in patients with multiple myeloma: a phase II study.

Bechtel T, McBride A, Crawford B, Bullington S, Hofmeister CC, Benson DM Jr, Jaglowski S, Penza S, Andritsos LA, Devine SM
Support Care Cancer 22 2911-6 11/01/2014


STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of aprepitant as part of the antiemetic regimen for high-dose melphalan conditioning in multiple myeloma patients.

DESIGN: This is a prospective, single-arm study.

SETTING: The study was conducted at an Academic Medical Facility.

SUBJECTS: Twenty-six patients receiving high-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell support were included in this study.

INTERVENTION: Eligible patients were >18 years with a diagnosis of MM undergoing high-dose melphalan followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). All patients had serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin less than 2× upper limit of normal. Treatment consisted of aprepitant 125 mg orally on day 1, followed by 80 mg orally 24 and 48 h after the initial dose; ondansetron 16 mg orally day 1; dexamethasone 12 mg orally day 1, and 8 mg orally days 2-4 with breakthrough medications as needed.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were evaluated for the frequency of emetic episodes, the need for breakthrough antiemetic medication, and the mean nausea score in 24-h increments beginning 24 h after chemotherapy and continuing until 120 h. Nausea score was determined using a linear analog scale (0-10). Complete response (CR) was defined as no more than one (1) emetic episode during the evaluation period. A total of 26 patients (17 male, 9 female) were enrolled in the study. Of these, 25 (96 %) were complete responders and 24 (92 %) had no documented emetic episodes during the study period. One patient (4 %) had 1 emetic episode and one patient (4 %) had 2 emetic episodes. Some degree of nausea was reported by 23/26 patients, and the mean nausea score for the entire group over the study period was 0.7 (range 0-10).

CONCLUSIONS: Addition of aprepitant to standard antiemetics resulted in low rates of delayed nausea/vomiting associated with high-dose melphalan and PBSCT, and has now become standard practice in this patient population at our institution.

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