Elevated Alkaline Phosphatase Prior to Transarterial Chemoembolization for Neuroendocrine Tumors Predicts Worse Outcomes.
Onesti JK, Shirley LA, Saunders ND, Davidson GW, Dillhoff ME, Khabiri H, Guy GE, Dowell JD, Schmidt CR, Shah MH, Bloomston M
J Gastrointest Surg 20 580-6 03/01/2016
INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that an elevated preoperative alkaline phosphatase (AP) predicted worse outcomes for patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) liver metastases.
METHODS: We reviewed all patients who underwent TACE for metastatic NET between 2009 and 2013. Survival was evaluated using preprocedure variables.
RESULTS: One hundred and nine patients underwent 210 TACE procedures. The average age was 57.7 years (range 20-78). Primary sites included pancreas (N = 20), other gastrointestinal (N = 52), lung (N = 9), and unknown (N = 28). The tumor was grade 1 in 68 (62 %), grade 2 in 21 (19 %), and grade 3 in 3 (3 %). Extrahepatic disease was present in 54 (50 %) and greater than 50 % hepatic tumor burden by imaging in 63 (58 %). Elevated bilirubin occurred in 8 (7 %), elevated AP in 22 (20 %), elevated ALT in 21 (19 %), and elevated AST in 41 (38 %). Univariate predictors included tumor grade (43 vs 27 vs 21 months, p = 0.015), hepatic tumor burden (59 vs 37 months, p = 0.009), and elevated AP (59 vs 23 months, p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only elevated AP (p = 0.001) predicted worse survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Elevated AP prior to TACE for metastatic NET portends a worse survival outcome, even more so than tumor grade or extent of hepatic disease.