Endometrial cancer: Molecular markers and management of advanced stage disease.
Arend RC, Jones BA, Martinez A, Goodfellow P
Gynecol Oncol 150 569-580 01/01/2018
Endometrial cancer is the most prevalent gynecologic cancer in the United States. Over the last 10 years, death rates from endometrial cancer have been rising about 1.4% per year. Traditionally endometrial cancer treatment has been driven by stage and histology. Recent studies have, however, shown that cancers of the same stage and histology have very distinct molecular and genomic profiles. Translational research is progressing rapidly and endometrial cancer-specific precision medicine is evolving. The first tissue agnostic therapy based on the molecular profile of the tumor was approved by the FDA this year. The approval of immune checkpoint inhibitor, pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1), for all solid tumors with defective DNA mismatch repair, could benefit 20-30% of patients with advanced endometrial cancer. Other genomic changes and molecular markers in endometrial cancer, such as hormone receptor status, could lead to more tailored therapy in the future. Pre-clinical and clinical investigations of targeted therapies suggest efficacy for some agents. Single agent targeted therapies, however, have modest activity. Identifying biomarkers that effectively determine response to targeted therapy remains a challenge. The next generation of clinical trials will focus on novel combinations and how to best utilize the advances that have been made in sequencing technology and bioinformatics. Although there is currently an immense body of data and many options for obtaining genomic characteristics of endometrial cancer, how to interpret and utilize this data is still being explored. This review will summarize the important trials that have led to the treatment options we have for advanced and/or recurrent endometrial cancer and discuss the important studies that have led to a better understanding of the distinctive molecular and genomic profiles within endometrial cancer. We will review the current status of biomarker-driven targeted therapy in endometrial cancer and the rationale behind ongoing clinical trials that are utilizing novel targeted agents.Full Text