Erdheim Chester disease in a patient with Burkitt lymphoma: a case report and review of literature.

Sakr HI, Buckley K, Baiocchi R, Zhao WJ, Hemminger JA
Diagn Pathol 13 94 11/24/2018

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Erdheim Chester disease (ECD) is a rare, non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by widespread tissue infiltration by CD68-positive, CD1a-negative foamy histiocytes. ECD can be difficult to identify, and diagnosis relies on the presence of histiocytes with certain histologic and immunophenotypic features in an appropriate clinical and radiologic setting. Clinical signs and symptoms are variable depending on which organ systems are involved. Most patients have at least skeletal involvement with bone pain as well as fatigue. Other common manifestations include diabetes insipidus, cardiac, periaortic, or retro-orbital infiltration/fibrosis, kidney impairment, xanthelasmas, among others.

CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we describe a case of BRAF-mutation positive ECD in a patient with Burkitt lymphoma, and we review recent literature.

CONCLUSION: Underlying BRAF and other MAPK pathway mutations are identified in approximately 50% of cases of ECD, which aids in diagnosis as well as enables novel targeted treatments. ECD patients have an increased risk of myeloid neoplasms; however, unlike other histiocytoses, an association with lymphoproliferative disorders has not been recognized.

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