Factors associated with intentions for breast cancer risk management: Does risk group matter?

Conley CC, Agnese DM, Vadaparampil ST, Andersen BL
Psychooncology in press 03/19/2019

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: National guidelines provide breast cancer (BC) risk management recommendations based on estimated lifetime risk. Despite this specificity, it is unclear if women's risk management intentions are or are not guideline concordant. To address this knowledge gap, women at varying risk levels reported intentions for risk-reducing behaviors. Factors associated with intentions, informed by the Health Beliefs Model, were also studied.

METHODS: Women with elevated BC risk (N=103) were studied and categorized by risk level: moderate (15-20%), high (≥20%), or very high (BRCA1/2 positive). Participants self-reported BC susceptibility, self-efficacy, and benefits, barriers, and intentions for risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM), risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), chemoprevention, improving diet or physical activity, and reducing alcohol use.

RESULTS: Groups significantly differed in RRSO intentions (p<0.01); BRCA1/2 positive women had greater intentions for RRSO. Groups did not differ in intentions for RRM, chemoprevension, or lifestyle changes (ps>0.28). In hierarchical linear regression models examining HBM factors, perceived susceptibility was associated with intentions for RRM (β=0.169, p=0.08). Perceived benefits was associated with intentions for RRM (β=0.237, p=0.02) and chemoprevention (β=0.388, p<0.01). Self-efficacy was associated with intentions for physical activity (β=0.286, p<0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with guidelines, BRCA1/2 positive women reported greater intentions for RRSO and risk groups did not differ in intentions for lifestyle changes. Notably, women's intentions for RRM and chemoprevention were guideline discordant; groups did not differ in intentions for these behaviors. Accounting for the effects of risk group, modifiable health beliefs were also associated with risk management intentions; these may represent targets for decision support interventions.

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