Fluorescent nanodiamonds engage innate immune effector cells: A potential vehicle for targeted anti-tumor immunotherapy.
Suarez-Kelly LP, Campbell AR, Rampersaud IV, Bumb A, Wang MS, Butchar JP, Tridandapani S, Yu L, Rampersaud AA, Carson WE 3rd
Nanomedicine 13 909-920 01/01/2017
Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are nontoxic, infinitely photostable, and emit fluorescence in the near infrared region. Natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes are part of the innate immune system and are crucial to the control of carcinogenesis. FND-mediated stimulation of these cells may serve as a strategy to enhance anti-tumor activity. FNDs were fabricated with a diameter of 70±28 nm. Innate immune cell FND uptake, viability, surface marker expression, and cytokine production were evaluated in vitro. Evaluation of fluorescence emission from the FNDs was conducted in an animal model. In vitro results demonstrated that treatment of immune cells with FNDs resulted in significant dose-dependent FND uptake, no compromise in cell viability, and immune cell activation. FNDs were visualized in an animal model. Hence, FNDs may serve as novel agents with "track and trace" capabilities to stimulate innate immune cell anti-tumor responses, especially as FNDs are amenable to surface-conjugation with immunomodulatory molecules.Full Text