Furcation Therapy With Enamel Matrix Derivative: Effects on the Subgingival Microbiome.
Queiroz LA, Casarin RCV, Dabdoub SM, Tatakis DN, Sallum EA, Kumar PS
J Periodontol 88 617-625 01/01/2017
BACKGROUND: Although enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has been used to promote periodontal regeneration, little is known of its effect on the microbiome. Therefore, this investigation aims to identify changes in periodontal microbiome after treatment with EMD using a deep-sequencing approach.
METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with mandibular Class II buccal furcation defects were randomized to beta-tricalcium-phosphate/hydroxyapatite graft (BONE group), EMD+BONE, or EMD alone. Plaque was collected from furcation defects at baseline and 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Bacterial DNA was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S pyrotag sequencing, resulting in 169,000 classifiable sequences being compared with the Human Oral Microbiome Database. Statistical comparisons were made using parametric tests.
RESULTS: At baseline, a total of 422 species were identified from the 39 defects, belonging to Fusobacterium, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Filifactor, and Parvimonas. All three regenerative procedures predictably altered the disease-associated microbiome, with a restitution of health-compatible species. However, EMD and BONE+EMD groups demonstrated more long-term reductions in a higher number of species than the BONE group (P <0.05), especially disease-associated species, e.g., Selenomonas noxia, F. alocis, and Fusobacterium.
CONCLUSIONS: EMD treatment predictably alters a dysbiotic subgingival microbiome, decreasing pathogen richness and increasing commensal abundance. Further investigations are needed to investigate how this impacts regenerative outcomes.