HDAC Inhibition for the Treatment of Epithelioid Sarcoma: Novel Cross Talk Between Epigenetic Components.

Lopez G, Song Y, Lam R, Ruder D, Creighton CJ, Bid HK, Bill KL, Bolshakov S, Zhang X, Lev D, Pollock RE
Mol Cancer Res 14 35-43 01/01/2016

Abstract

UNLABELLED: Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare neoplasm uniquely comprised of cells exhibiting both mesenchymal and epithelial features. Having propensity for local and distant recurrence, it poses a diagnostic dilemma secondary to pathologic complexity. Patients have dismal prognosis due to lack of effective therapy. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) exhibit marked antitumor effects in various malignancies. The studies here demonstrate that pan-HDAC inhibitors constitute novel therapeutics versus epithelioid sarcoma. Human ES cells (VAESBJ, HS-ES, Epi-544) were studied in preclinical models to evaluate HDACi effects. Immunoblot and RT-PCR were used to evaluate expression of acetylated tubulin, histones H3/H4, EZH2 upon HDACi. MTS and clonogenic assays were used to assess the impact of HDACi on cell growth. Cell culture assays were used to evaluate the impact of HDACi and EZH2-specific siRNA inhibition on cell-cycle progression and survival. Unbiased gene array analysis was used to identify the impact of HDACi on epithelioid sarcoma gene expression. Xenografts were used to evaluate epithelioid sarcoma tumor growth in response to HDACi. HDAC inhibition increased target protein acetylation and abrogated cell growth and colony formation in epithelioid sarcoma cells. HDACi induced G(2) cell-cycle arrest and marked apoptosis, and reduced tumor growth in xenograft models. HDACi induced widespread gene expression changes, and EZH2 was significantly downregulated. EZH2 knockdown resulted in abrogated cell growth in vitro.

IMPLICATIONS: The current study suggests a clinical role for HDACi in human epithelioid sarcoma, which, when combined with EZH2 inhibitors, could serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for epithelioid sarcoma patients. Future investigations targeting specific HDAC isoforms along with EZH2 may potentially maximizing treatment efficacy.

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