Identification of NRAS isoform 2 overexpression as a mechanism facilitating BRAF inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma.
Duggan MC, Stiff AR, Bainazar M, Regan K, Olaverria Salavaggione GN, Maharry S, Blachly JS, Krischak M, Walker CJ, Latchana N, Tridandapani S, de la Chapelle A, Eisfeld AK, Carson WE 3rd
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114 9629-9634 01/05/2017
Activating mutations in BRAF are found in 50% of melanomas and although treatment with BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) is effective, resistance often develops. We now show that recently discovered NRAS isoform 2 is up-regulated in the setting of BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma, in both cell lines and patient tumor tissues. When isoform 2 was overexpressed in BRAF mutant melanoma cell lines, melanoma cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth were significantly increased in the presence of BRAFi treatment. shRNA-mediated knockdown of isoform 2 in BRAFi resistant cells restored sensitivity to BRAFi compared with controls. Signaling analysis indicated decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling and increased phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway signaling in isoform 2 overexpressing cells compared with isoform 1 overexpressing cells. Immunoprecipitation of isoform 2 validated a binding affinity of this isoform to both PI3K and BRAF/RAF1. The addition of an AKT inhibitor to BRAFi treatment resulted in a partial restoration of BRAFi sensitivity in cells expressing high levels of isoform 2. NRAS isoform 2 may contribute to resistance to BRAFi by facilitating PI3K pathway activation.Full Text