Inheritance of deleterious mutations at both BRCA1 and BRCA2 in an international sample of 32,295 women.
Rebbeck TR, Friebel TM, Mitra N, Wan F, Chen S, Andrulis IL, Apostolou P, Arnold N, Arun BK, Barrowdale D, Benitez J, Berger R, Berthet P, Borg A, Buys SS, Caldes T, Carter J, Chiquette J, Claes KB, Couch FJ, Cybulski C, Daly MB, de la Hoya M, Diez O, Domchek SM, Nathanson KL, Durda K, Ellis S, EMBRACE, Evans DG, Foretova L, Friedman E, Frost D, Ganz PA, Garber J, Glendon G, Godwin AK, Greene MH, Gronwald J, Hahnen E, Hallberg E, Hamann U, Hansen TV, HEBON, Imyanitov EN, Isaacs C, Jakubowska A, Janavicius R, Jaworska-Bieniek K, John EM, Karlan BY, Kaufman B, Investigators K, Kwong A, Laitman Y, Lasset C, Lazaro C, Lester J, Loman N, Lubinski J, Manoukian S, Mitchell G, Montagna M, Neuhausen SL, Nevanlinna H, Niederacher D, Nussbaum RL, Offit K, Olah E, Olopade OI, Park SK, Piedmonte M, Radice P, Rappaport-Fuerhauser C, Rookus MA, Seynaeve C, Simard J, Singer CF, Soucy P, Southey M, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Sukiennicki G, Szabo CI, Tancredi M, Teixeira MR, Teo SH, Terry MB, Thomassen M, Tihomirova L, Tischkowitz M, Toland AE, Toloczko-Grabarek A, Tung N, van Rensburg EJ, Villano D, Wang-Gohrke S, Wappenschmidt B, Weitzel JN, Zidan J, Zorn KK, McGuffog L, Easton D, Chenevix-Trench G, Antoniou AC, Ramus SJ
Breast Cancer Res 18 112 01/11/2016
BACKGROUND: Most BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers have inherited a single (heterozygous) mutation. Transheterozygotes (TH) who have inherited deleterious mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 are rare, and the consequences of transheterozygosity are poorly understood.
METHODS: From 32,295 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, we identified 93 TH (0.3 %). "Cases" were defined as TH, and "controls" were single mutations at BRCA1 (SH1) or BRCA2 (SH2). Matched SH1 "controls" carried a BRCA1 mutation found in the TH "case". Matched SH2 "controls" carried a BRCA2 mutation found in the TH "case". After matching the TH carriers with SH1 or SH2, 91 TH were matched to 9316 SH1, and 89 TH were matched to 3370 SH2.
RESULTS: The majority of TH (45.2 %) involved the three common Jewish mutations. TH were more likely than SH1 and SH2 women to have been ever diagnosed with breast cancer (BC; p = 0.002). TH were more likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC) than SH2 (p = 0.017), but not SH1. Age at BC diagnosis was the same in TH vs. SH1 (p = 0.231), but was on average 4.5 years younger in TH than in SH2 (p < 0.001). BC in TH was more likely to be estrogen receptor (ER) positive (p = 0.010) or progesterone receptor (PR) positive (p = 0.013) than in SH1, but less likely to be ER positive (p < 0.001) or PR positive (p = 0.012) than SH2. Among 15 tumors from TH patients, there was no clear pattern of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for BRCA1 or BRCA2 in either BC or OC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest that clinical TH phenotypes resemble SH1. However, TH breast tumor marker characteristics are phenotypically intermediate to SH1 and SH2.