Marital distress, depression, and a leaky gut: Translocation of bacterial endotoxin as a pathway to inflammation.
Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Wilson SJ, Bailey ML, Andridge R, Peng J, Jaremka LM, Fagundes CP, Malarkey WB, Laskowski B, Belury MA
Psychoneuroendocrinology 98 52-60 12/01/2018
BACKGROUND: Marital distress and depression work in tandem to escalate risks for inflammation-related disorders. Translocation of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) from the gut microbiota to blood circulation stimulates systemic inflammatory responses.
METHODS: To investigate increased gut permeability (a "leaky gut") as one potential mechanistic pathway from marital distress and depression to heightened inflammation, this secondary analysis of a double-blind, randomized crossover study examined serial assessments of two endotoxin biomarkers, LPS-binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14), as well as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) during two separate 9.5 h visits. The 43 (N = 86) healthy married couples, ages 24-61 (mean = 38.22), discussed a marital disagreement during both visits; behavioral coding of these interactions provided data on hostile marital behaviors, a hallmark of marital distress. The Structured Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV assessed participants' mood disorder history.
RESULTS: Participants with more hostile marital interactions had higher LBP than those who were less hostile. Additionally, the combination of more hostile marital interactions with a mood disorder history was associated with higher LBP/sCD14 ratios. Higher LBP and LBP/sCD14 were associated with greater CRP production; for example, only 21% of low LBP participants (lowest quartile) had average CRP across the day > 3, compared to 79% of those in the highest quartile. Higher sCD14 was associated with higher IL-6.
CONCLUSIONS: These bacterial LPS translocation data illustrate how a distressed marriage and a mood disorder history can promote a proinflammatory milieu through increased gut permeability, thus fueling inflammation-related disorders.