Multiparameter Evaluation of the Heterogeneity of Circulating Tumor Cells Using Integrated RNA In Situ Hybridization and Immunocytochemical Analysis.

Wu Y, Park KJ, Deighan C, Amaya P, Miller B, Pan Q, Zborowski M, Lustberg M, Chalmers J
Front Oncol 6 234 01/01/2016


Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are routinely identified as cytokeratin (CK)-positive, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-positive, and CD45-negative and are enriched based on EpCAM. However, there are a number of methodological challenges regarding both isolation and characterization of these rare CTCs including downregulation or absence of EpCAM in a variety of solid tumors leading to the omission of subpopulations of CTCs, difficulties in analyzing RNA and protein targets in CTCs due to the rarity of these cells, and low levels of targets and technological limitations of visualizing the targets of interest on each individual cell. Building on our previous CTC research on CD45-based negative magnetic separation and four-color fluorescent immunocytochemical (ICC) staining, RNA

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