Plasma-based biomaterials for the treatment of cutaneous radiation injury.

Miller ED, Song F, Smith JD, Ayan AS, Mo X, Weldon M, Lu L, Campbell PG, Bhatt AD, Chakravarti A, Jacob NK
Wound Repair Regen 27 139-149 03/01/2019

Abstract

Cutaneous wounds caused by an exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation remain a therapeutic challenge. While new experimental strategies for treatment are being developed, there are currently no off-the-shelf therapies for the treatment of cutaneous radiation injury that have been proven to promote repair of the damaged tissues. Plasma-based biomaterials are biologically active biomaterials made from platelet enriched plasma, which can be made into both solid and semi-solid forms, are inexpensive, and are available as off-the-shelf, nonrefrigerated products. In this study, the use of plasma-based biomaterials for the mitigation of acute and late toxicity for cutaneous radiation injury was investigated using a mouse model. A 2-cm diameter circle of the dorsal skin was irradiated with a single dose of 35 Gy followed by topical treatment with plasma-based biomaterial or vehicle once daily for 5 weeks postirradiation. Weekly imaging demonstrated more complete wound resolution in the plasma-based biomaterial vs. vehicle group which became statistically significant (p < 0.05) at weeks 12, 13, and 14 postmaximum wound area. Despite more complete wound healing, at 9 and 17 weeks postirradiation, there was no statistically significant difference in collagen deposition or skin thickness between the plasma-based biomaterial and vehicle groups based on Masson trichrome staining nor was there a statistically significant difference in inflammatory or fibrosis-related gene expression between the groups. Although significant improvement was not observed for late toxicity, plasma-based biomaterials were effective at promoting wound closure, thus helping to mitigate acute toxicity.

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