Searching for management approaches to reduce HAI transmission (SMART): a study protocol.
McAlearney AS, Hefner JL, Sieck CJ, Walker DM, Aldrich AM, Sova LN, Gaughan AA, Slevin CM, Hebert C, Hade E, Buck J, Grove M, Huerta TR
Implement Sci 12 82 01/28/2017
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) impact patients' lives through prolonged hospitalization, morbidity, and death, resulting in significant costs to both health systems and society. Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are two of the most preventable HAIs. As a result, these HAIs have been the focus of significant efforts to identify evidence-based clinical strategies to reduce infection rates. The Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) provides a formal model for translating CLABSI-reduction evidence into practice. Yet, a national demonstration project found organizations experienced variable levels of success using CUSP to reduce CLABSIs. In addition, in Fiscal year 2019, Medicare will expand use of CLABSI and CAUTI metrics beyond ICUs to the entire hospital for reimbursement purposes. As a result, hospitals need guidance about how to successfully translate HAI-reduction efforts such as CUSP to non-ICU settings (clinical practice), and how to shape context (management practice)-including culture and management strategies-to proactively support clinical teams.
METHODS: Using a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the contribution of management factors to successful HAI-reduction efforts, our study aims to: (1) Develop valid and reliable measures of structural management practices associated with the recommended CLABSI Management Strategies for use as a survey (HAI Management Practice Guideline Survey) to support HAI-reduction efforts in both medical/surgical units and ICUs; (2) Develop, validate, and then deploy the HAI Management Practice Guideline Survey, first across Ohio hospitals, then nationwide, to determine the positive predictive value of the measurement instrument as it relates to CLABSI- and CAUTI-prevention; and (3) Integrate findings into a Management Practices Toolkit for HAI reduction that includes an organization-specific data dashboard for monitoring progress and an implementation program for toolkit use, and disseminate that Toolkit nationwide.
DISCUSSION: Providing hospitals with the tools they need to successfully measure management structures that support clinical care provides a powerful approach that can be leveraged to reduce the incidence of HAIs experienced by patients. This study is critical to providing the information necessary to successfully "make health care safer" by providing guidance on how contextual factors within a healthcare setting can improve patient safety across hospitals.