Serine/Threonine Kinase MLK4 Determines Mesenchymal Identity in Glioma Stem Cells in an NF-κB-dependent Manner.
Kim SH, Ezhilarasan R, Phillips E, Gallego-Perez D, Sparks A, Taylor D, Ladner K, Furuta T, Sabit H, Chhipa R, Cho JH, Mohyeldin A, Beck S, Kurozumi K, Kuroiwa T, Iwata R, Asai A, Kim J, Sulman EP, Cheng SY, Lee LJ, Nakada M, Guttridge D, DasGupta B, Goidts V, Bhat KP, Nakano I
Cancer Cell 29 201-13 02/08/2016
Activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) induces mesenchymal (MES) transdifferentiation and radioresistance in glioma stem cells (GSCs), but molecular mechanisms for NF-κB activation in GSCs are currently unknown. Here, we report that mixed lineage kinase 4 (MLK4) is overexpressed in MES but not proneural (PN) GSCs. Silencing MLK4 suppresses self-renewal, motility, tumorigenesis, and radioresistance of MES GSCs via a loss of the MES signature. MLK4 binds and phosphorylates the NF-κB regulator IKKα, leading to activation of NF-κB signaling in GSCs. MLK4 expression is inversely correlated with patient prognosis in MES, but not PN high-grade gliomas. Collectively, our results uncover MLK4 as an upstream regulator of NF-κB signaling and a potential molecular target for the MES subtype of glioblastomas.Full Text