UV radiation-induced SUMOylation of DDB2 regulates nucleotide excision repair.
Han C, Zhao R, Kroger J, He J, Wani G, Wang QE, Wani AA
Carcinogenesis 38 976-985 01/01/2017
Subunit 2 of DNA damage-binding protein complex (DDB2) is an early sensor of nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway for eliminating DNA damage induced by UV radiation (UVR) and cisplatin treatments of mammalian cells. DDB2 is modified by ubiquitin and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in response to UVR, and these modifications play a crucial role in regulating NER. Here, using immuno-analysis of irradiated cell extracts, we have identified multiple post-irradiation modifications of DDB2 protein. Interestingly, although the DNA lesions induced by both UVR and cisplatin are corrected by NER, only the UV irradiation, but not the cisplatin treatment, induces any discernable DDB2 modifications. We, for the first time, show that the appearance of UVR-induced DDB2 modifications depend on the binding of DDB2 to the damaged chromatin and the participation of functionally active 26S proteasome. The in vitro and in vivo analysis revealed that SUMO-1 conjugations comprise a significant portion of these UVR-induced DDB2 modifications. Mapping of SUMO-modified sites demonstrated that UVR-induced SUMOylation occurs on Lys-309 residue of DDB2 protein. Mutation of Lys-309 to Arg-309 diminished the DDB2 SUMOylation observable both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, K309R mutated DDB2 lost its function of recruiting XPC to the DNA damage sites, as well as the ability to repair cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers following cellular UV irradiation. Taken together, our results indicate that DDB2 is modified by SUMOylation upon UV irradiation, and this post-translational modification plays an important role in the initial recognition and processing of UVR-induced DNA damage occurring within the context of chromatin.Full Text